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Dobrynya Krasilnikov
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How to Conduct Your Own Chemistry Investigatory Project for Class 12 and Download it as an epub File



Download Chemistry Investigatory Project For Class 12.epub




Chemistry is one of the most fascinating and sought-after branches of science that entails enormous career opportunities. CBSE curriculum for class 12 includes investigatory chemistry projects through which the students understand the fundamental theories. If you are a 12th-class student who is looking forward to preparing an impressive project and need some assistance with it, you are just in the right place. Through this article, we are here to help you with every little detail you would want to know about the chemistry investigatory project for class 12.




Download Chemistry Investigatory Project For Class 12.epub



In this article, we will cover some popular chemistry investigatory projects for class 12 that you can choose from, as well as how to download chemistry investigatory project for class 12.epub file from the internet. An epub file is a type of ebook format that allows you to read digital books on various devices and platforms. By downloading chemistry investigatory project for class 12.epub file, you can access a comprehensive and detailed guide on how to conduct your own experiments, analyze your results, and present your findings in a report or presentation.


Popular Chemistry Investigatory Projects for Class 12




We suggest preparing your chemistry investigatory project simple and easy to understand because you have comparatively less time to study for your board exams as they are on your head. Following are the details about the most popular chemistry investigatory projects for class 12.


Synthesis of Aspirin




One of the most popular chemistry investigatory projects for class 12 students is the making of aspirin, a common name for a compound, named acetylsalicylic acid. It is mainly used as a painkiller in our daily lives. Aspirin is derived from salicyclic acid, a natural product, having its roots from the bark extracts of the Willow family of plants, and was earlier used as a home remedy for curing headaches and fever. As the salicylic acid is bitter and irritating for the stomach, it is administered in the form of aspirin which proves to be less irritating.


To synthesize aspirin, you will need salicylic acid, acetic anhydride, concentrated sulfuric acid, distilled water, ice, ethanol, and a few apparatus such as a round-bottomed flask, a condenser, a water bath, a Buchner funnel, and a filter paper. The procedure involves heating a mixture of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The reaction produces acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and acetic acid as by-products. The aspirin is then purified by recrystallization using water and ethanol as solvents.


The advantages of aspirin synthesis are that it is a simple and inexpensive process that can be done in a laboratory setting. It also demonstrates the concept of esterification, which is the formation of an ester from an acid and an alcohol. The disadvantages of aspirin synthesis are that it involves the use of hazardous chemicals that can cause burns and irritation. It also requires careful handling and disposal of the waste materials.


Adsorption




A process that leads to the transfer of a substance from fluid bulk to a solid surface, because of the forces of chemical bonds is called Adsorption. In this, the gaseous or liquid particles bind to a solid surface called adsorbate and form a molecular or atomic adsorbate film. Adsorption is usually a reversible process and in most cases, it is described at equilibrium which quantifies the amount which is equal to the amount of substance attached to the surface given and the concentration in the fluid. This is a popular concept among students for the chemistry investigatory project for class 12.


To study the adsorption of acetic acid on charcoal using Freundlich's adsorption isotherm, you will need acetic acid solution, activated charcoal powder, distilled water, conical flasks, pipettes, burettes, phenolphthalein indicator, and sodium hydroxide solution. The procedure involves preparing different concentrations of acetic acid solution and adding equal amounts of charcoal powder to each flask. The flasks are then shaken well and allowed to stand for some time. The excess acetic acid is then titrated with sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The amount of acetic acid adsorbed on charcoal is calculated by subtracting the amount of acetic acid left in the solution from the initial amount.


The applications of adsorption are numerous and diverse. Some examples are air purification, water treatment, gas separation, catalysis, chromatography, drug delivery, and sensors. The limitations of adsorption are that it depends on various factors such as temperature, pressure, surface area, pore size, and chemical nature of the adsorbent and adsorbate. It also requires constant monitoring and regeneration of the adsorbent material.


Sterilization of Water Using Bleaching Powder




Bleaching powder or Calcium hypochlorite [Ca (ClO)] is a very common way to disinfect drinking water with accurate scientific details. It releases chlorine gas when dissolved in water which kills harmful microorganisms present in water. It also oxidizes organic matter and removes color and odor from water. However, bleaching powder also has some drawbacks such as leaving behind calcium carbonate as a residue which can cause scaling and hardness in water. It also loses its potency over time due to exposure to air and moisture.


How to Test Water for Chlorine




There are several methods to test water for chlorine, depending on the type and level of chlorine you want to measure. Some of the common methods are:



  • Test Strips: The simplest and fastest technique to determine the chlorine level in drinking water is a test strip. Test strips are similar to the ones used for drug or urine testing. One part of the strip is infused with DPD or diethyl-phenylene diamine. You need to dip this end in the water for a few seconds. The strip will change color depending on the amount of chlorine present in the water. You can then compare the color with a chart provided with the test kit to get an approximate reading of the chlorine concentration.



  • Digital Colorimeters: One of the more accurate chlorine testing methods is a digital colorimeter. Digital colorimeters use two different methods. In the first, a DPD tablet is added to the sample water. This causes a color change that is proportional to the amount of chlorine in the water. The colorimeter then measures the intensity of the color and displays the chlorine level on a digital screen. In the second method, a sensor probe is inserted into the sample water. The probe measures the electrical current generated by the reaction of chlorine with an electrode. The current is then converted into a chlorine reading by the colorimeter.



  • Amperometric Sensors: A more sophisticated technique to test for chlorine in water inline is based on the amperometric method. In this method, chlorine is measured by a sensor probe containing the electrolyte potassium chloride (KCl). The probe is placed in the distribution system where water passes by. The probe has two electrodes: one that generates a constant voltage and one that measures the current produced by the oxidation of chlorine at the surface of the electrode. The current is proportional to the concentration of chlorine in the water. The sensor sends a signal to a transmitter that displays the chlorine level on a monitor.



These methods can be used to measure different types of chlorine in water, such as free chlorine, total chlorine, residual chlorine, combined chlorine, etc. Free chlorine is the amount of chlorine that is available to react with pathogens and organic matter in water. Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine, which is formed when free chlorine reacts with ammonia or nitrogen compounds in water. Residual chlorine is the amount of free chlorine that remains in water after disinfection. Combined chlorine and residual chlorine are less effective than free chlorine as disinfectants.


How to Download Chemistry Investigatory Project For Class 12.epub File




If you are looking for a comprehensive and detailed guide on how to conduct your own chemistry investigatory project for class 12, you might want to download chemistry investigatory project for class 12.epub file from the internet. An epub file is a type of ebook format that allows you to read digital books on various devices and platforms. By downloading chemistry investigatory project for class 12.epub file, you can access a wealth of information on how to design and execute your experiments, analyze your results, and present your findings in a report or presentation.


What is an epub file and why is it useful for reading ebooks?




An epub file is an electronic publication file that stands for "electronic publication". It is a standard format for ebooks that can be read on different devices such as computers, tablets, smartphones, e-readers, etc. An epub file has several features and advantages over other formats such as PDF or DOCX, such as:



  • It is compatible with most devices and platforms that support ebook reading software or applications.



  • It is flexible and adaptable to different screen sizes and orientations, allowing you to adjust the font size, style, layout, etc.



  • It supports multimedia elements such as images, audio, video, hyperlinks, etc., enhancing your reading experience.



  • It allows you to bookmark, highlight, annotate, and share your ebooks with others.



  • It has a smaller file size than other formats, saving storage space and bandwidth.



To open and read an epub file on your device, you will need an ebook reader software or application that supports epub format. Some of the popular ebook readers are:



  • Calibre: A free and open-source ebook management software that can read, edit, convert, and organize your ebooks. It is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux.



  • Adobe Digital Editions: A free ebook reader software that can read and manage your ebooks. It is available for Windows and Mac.



  • iBooks: A built-in ebook reader application for iOS and Mac devices that can read and sync your ebooks across your devices.