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Y.E.A. North America

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Dobrynya Krasilnikov
Dobrynya Krasilnikov

Phylogenesis [NEW]

Adult tissue plasticity, cell reprogramming, and organ regeneration are major challenges in the field of modern regenerative medicine. Devising strategies to increase the regenerative capacity of tissues holds great promise for dealing with donor organ shortages and low transplantation outcomes and also provides essential impetus to tissue bioengineering approaches for organ repair and replacement. The inherent ability of cells to reprogram their fate by switching into an embryonic-like, pluripotent progenitor state is an evolutionary vestige that in mammals has been retained mostly in fetal tissues and persists only in a few organs of the adult body. Tissue regeneration reflects the capacity of terminally differentiated cells to re-enter the cell cycle and proliferate in response to acute injury or environmental stress signals. In lower vertebrates, this regenerative capacity extends to several organs and remarkably culminates in precise tissue patterning, through cellular transdifferentiation and complex morphogenetic processes that can faithfully reconstruct entire body parts. Many lessons have been learned from robust regeneration models in amphibians such as the newt and axolotl. However, the dynamic interactions between the regenerating tissue, the surrounding stroma, and the host immune response, as it adapts to the actively proliferating tissue, remain ill-defined. The regenerating zone, through a sequence of distinct molecular events, adopts phenotypic plasticity and undergoes rigorous tissue remodeling that, in turn, evokes a significant inflammatory response. Complement is a primordial sentinel of the innate immune response that engages in multiple inflammatory cascades as it becomes activated during tissue injury and remodeling. In this respect, complement proteins have been implicated in tissue and organ regeneration in both urodeles and mammals. Distinct complement-triggered pathways have been shown to modulate critical responses that promote tissue reprogramming, pattern formation, and regeneration across phylogenesis. This article will discuss the mechanistic insights underlying the crosstalk of complement with cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that drive tissue regeneration and will provide a unified conceptual framework for considering complement modulation as a novel target for regenerative therapeutics.


Freud used the term phylogenesis to encompass the process of human evolution from its earliest origins. He hypothesized that individual development (onto-genesis) repeats the main stages of evolution, with the traumatic events in the history of humanity thus reappearing and having a structural influence on the individual. This would explain the universality of primal fantasies, the Oedipus complex, and, more globally, a general outline for the development and functioning of the human psychical apparatus (or psyche).

Freud had already begun reckoning with the axis of time in his early research on the pathways of nerve conduction. He continued to do so in his study of aphasia (where the influence of Hughlings Jackson is notable) and so he quite naturally placed it at the heart of psychoanalysis, in accordance with two axes that he claims to be complementary, ontogenesis and phylogenesis. For Freud, the ontogenetic explanation takes precedence, but reference to phylogenesis may be used to support it, albeit cautiously: "I regard it as a methodological error to seize on a phylogenetic explanation before the ontogenetic possibilities have been exhausted" (1918b [1914], p. 97).

In spite of this reservation, Freud made great use of Haeckel's hypothesis whereby "ontogenesis recapitulates phylogenesis," and it is worth bearing in mind that his mentor, Carl Klaus, was a fervent disciple of Haeckel. Freud is very explicit in this regard: "Impressive analogies from biology have prepared us to find that the individual's mental development repeats the course of human development in an abbreviated form" (1910c, p. 97), and again (1913f).

Freud made frequent references to phylogenesis in his writings, but it is of central importance in two of them, in which he attempts to paint a vast picture that brings together both the history of the individual and that of humanity in general. In Totem and Taboo (1912-13a), which Freud based "upon a hypothesis ofCharles Darwin's upon the social state of primitive men": like apes "men, too, originally lived in comparatively small groups or hordes within which the jealousy of the oldest and strongest male prevented sexual promiscuity" (p. 125). Every human being retains a trace of this domination, which was broken when the sons killed the father: this is the Oedipus complex. And in A Phylogenetic Phantasy: Overview of the Transference Neuroses (1985 [1915]), Freud created a sweeping fresco in which he tried to coordinate three stories marked by three temporalities: that of a postulated succession of psychopathological states, that of onto-genesis, and that of phylogenesis (Perron, 1994). In this attempt, conducted jointly with Ferenczi, Freud was in fact more Lamarckian than Darwinian in spite of the discredit that came to bear on Lamarck in the scientific world at the time. Lamarckism informs many passages of his work: in fact, in order to support his hypotheses it was important to believe that individual acquisitions could be preserved and passed on from generation to generation. He often returned to this: "The phylogenetically inherited schemata [. . .] are precipitates from the history of human civilization [. . .] This instinctive factor would then be the nucleus of the unconscious" (1918b [1914], pp. 119-120), and again: "Affective states have become incorporated in the mind as precipitates of primaeval traumatic experiences, and when a similar situation occurs they are revived like mnemic symbols" (1926d, p. 93).

Thomas, Liji. (2022, August 31). The most recent evidence about phylogenesis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for monkeypox. News-Medical. Retrieved on April 01, 2023 from

Thomas, Liji. "The most recent evidence about phylogenesis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for monkeypox". News-Medical. (accessed April 01, 2023).

Thomas, Liji. 2022. The most recent evidence about phylogenesis, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for monkeypox. News-Medical, viewed 01 April 2023, 041b061a72


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